Fundamentals of Fouling

Types of Fouling

  • Precipitation / Crystallization dissolved inorganic salts with inverse solubility characteristics.

  • …and Calcium Sulfate is one of the most troublesome among these inorganic salts.

  • Particulate / Sedimentation  suspended solids, insoluble corrosion products, sand, silt

  • Chemical Reaction common in petroleum refining and polymer production

  • Corrosion material reacts with fluid to form corrosion products, which attach to the heat transfer surface to form nucleation sites

  • Biological initially micro-fouling, usually followed by macro-fouling

  • Solidification ice formation, paraffin waxes


Fouling Mechanisms  An understanding of the sequence of events typically referred to as the fouling mechanisms must follow.

  • Initiation most critical period when temperature, concentration and velocity gradients, oxygen depletion zones and crystal nucleation sites are established a few minutes to a few weeks

  • Migration most widely studied phenomenon involving transport of foulant to surface and various diffusion transport mechanisms

  • Attachment begins the formation of the deposit

  • Transformation or Aging another critical period when physical or chemical changes can increase deposit strength and tenacity

  • Removal or Re-entrainment dependent upon deposit strength removal of fouling layers by dissolution, erosion or spalling or by . . . randomly distributed turbulent bursts

AND FINALLY. . . add some appreciation for the . . . .


. . .and you are now fully prepared to eliminate heat exchanger fouling problems with technologies that are here TODAY.

AFTER you have accepted the fact that you do have a problem and decided to pursue a cost-effective solution it will be time to consider

Dynamic Enhancement & Self-Cleaning Heat Exchanger Technologies

We would like to offer our products and services to assist you in resolving your heat exchanger fouling problems and in reducing the cost of fouling at your facility. And, we will welcome an opportunity to work with your preferred ASME Code Fabricator to achieve those objectives.